Keeping woodlands in Wales and Ireland healthy

Glossary C


Cadw:The historic environment service of the Welsh Assembly Government.
Campodeiform Larva:An elongated and flattened larva with well-developed legs and antennae. Many beetle larvae are of this type.
Capacity building:In the context of climate change, the process of developing the technical skills and institutional capability in developing countries and economies in transition to enable them to address effectively the causes and results of climate change.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS):A process consisting of separation of CO2 from industrial and energy related sources, transport to a storage location, and long-term isolation from the atmosphere.
Carbon footprint:A representation of the effect that human activities have on the climate in terms of the net amount of greenhouse gases produced, usually measured as tonnes of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide equivalent.
Carbon neutral:Having no net effect on carbon levels.
Carbon sequestration:Carbon storage in terrestrial or marine reservoirs. Biological sequestration includes direct removal of CO2 from the atmosphere through land-use change, afforestation, reforestation, carbon storage in landfills and practices that enhance soil carbon in agriculture.
Carbon sink:A natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period. The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration The natural sinks are: photosynthesis by terrestrial plants (leading to long-term storage in peat bogs or timber); and absorption of carbon dioxide by the oceans via physicochemical and biological processes.
Carl Linnaeus:The Swedish biologist who first described many species and developed the system of naming organisms that is still used today.
Castes:Different individuals within the same species of social insect that have a different appearance suited to their behaviour.
CCF:Continuous Cover Forestry or Closer to Nature Forest Management: management of forests where a permanent growing stock is maintained and increment is removed in cyclical interventions.
CCFG:Continuous Cover Forestry Group: promotes the transformation of even-aged plantations to structurally, visually and biologically diverse forests, in which sustainable production of quality timber is undertaken with the application of the principles of continuous cover management. CCFG is a member of ProSilva Europe, a federation of forestry organisations committed to advancing 'close to nature' silvicultural systems.
CCSM3:NCAR Global Climate Model 3 data.
CEH:The Centre for Ecology and Hydrology is a leading UK body for research and monitoring in terrestrial and freshwater sciences.
Character:In Entomological Terms - it refers to any attribute of organisms used for recognizing, differentiating or classifying taxa.
Chitin:The tough, horny material making up the bulk of the insect’s outer skeleton.
Cladistic Classification:Classification based on ‘recency of common descent’ i.e. Categories depend on the position of the branching points on the inferred phylogenetic tree.
Cladogram:A diagram showing nothing more than the sequence in which groups of organisms are interpreted to have originated and diverged in the course of evolution.
Class:One of the seven taxonomic ranks used to classify living organisms. Class comes after Phylum and before Order.
Classification:The ordering of organisms into groups on the basis of their relationship.
Clean or renewable energy:Is any energy that causes little or no harm to the environment. Wind energy, solar energy (in all its forms – photovoltaic, geothermal, solar thermal etc), hydrogen and fuel cells, wave and tidal energy, and biomass are all examples of clean energy.
Clean Money:Projects must be Match Funded with ‘clean’ money i.e. money that has not originated in any way from an European Funding source.
Clear felling:Cutting down an area of woodland (if within a larger area of woodland is typically a felling greater than 0.25 hectares). Sometimes a scatter or clumps of trees may be left standing within the felled area.
CLIMADAPT:A web-based decision support system (DSS) based on Ecological Site Classification (ESC) developed specifically for Irish Forestry. The objective is to provide a free DSS for forest managers and policy makers, using soil and climatic information that can be used to assess species suitability and yield for individual sites under current and future climate change scenarios. The DSS also includes a spatial analysis module for regional assessment of key environmental factors influencing species suitability and productivity.
Climate change:Natural and human-induced changes in the ‘average weather’ of a region. (The term ‘global warming’ was previously used synonymously with ‘climate change’).
Climatology:The meteorological study of climates and their phenomena. i.e. the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Cline:A progressive, usually continuous change in one or more characters of a species over a geographic or altitudinal range.
CLRTAP:Convention on Long-range Transboundary Pollution: One of five environmental treaties negotiated by UNECE. The aim of the Convention is to endeavour to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range transboundary air pollution. Parties develop policies and strategies to combat the discharge of air pollutants through exchanges of information, consultation, research and monitoring.
CMIP5:Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5.
CNC:Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru. See NRW below
Cocoon:A protective case made largely or completely from silk by a caterpillar or other insect larva in which it can pupate safely.
Code of Zoological Nomenclature:Designed to enable zoologists to arrive at names for taxa that are correct under particular taxonomic circumstances. The use of the Code enables a zoologist to determine the valid name for a taxon to which an animal belongs at any rank in the hierarchy species, genus, and family (including subspecies, subgenus, and ranks of the family group such as subfamily and tribe). The Code does not fully regulate the names of taxa above the family group and provides no rules for use below the rank of subspecies.
Coed Cymru:An all Wales initiative to promote the management of broadleaf woodlands and the use of locally grown hardwood timber in Wales.
Coed Lleol:A partnership project hosted by the Smallwoods Association with a steering group of representatives from Natural Resources Wales, Woodland Trust, the Wildlife Trusts, Tir Coed, the Health Service in Wales, and representatives of community woodland groups and self-employed foresters. It aims to help more people enjoy and care for woodlands in Wales.
COFORD:The COFORD Council for Forest Research and Development is a representative body from the Forest Sector in Ireland.  The Council advises the Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine on research and developmental issues. Forest Sector Development Division of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine provides the secretariat for the Council and carries out work in forest policy, climate change, wood products and fuels, and forest statistics.
Cohesion:This means (literally) 'sticking together'. The jargon term 'promoting social cohesion' means the EU tries to make sure that everyone has a place in society – for example by tackling poverty, unemployment and discrimination. The EU budget includes money known as the 'Cohesion Fund' which is used to finance projects that help the EU 'stick together'. For example, it finances new road and rail links that help disadvantaged regions take a full part in the EU economy.
Coillte:A commercial company based in Ireland operating in forestry, land based businesses, renewable energy and panel products. And it’s core purpose is to enrich lives locally, nationally and globally through the innovative and sustainable management of natural resources 
Coleopterology:The branch of entomology that studies beetles.
Coleopterous pests:An order of insects having the anterior pair of wings (elytra) hard and horny, and serving as coverings for the posterior pair, which are membranous, and folded transversely under the others when not in use. The mouth parts form two pairs of jaws (mandibles and maxillæ) adapted for chewing. Most of the Coleoptera are known as beetles and weevils.
Community:A group of people holding something in common, such as a place or a common interest.
Complete metamorphosis:A type of metamorphosis in which an insect goes through four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, imago (the adult insect).
Compliance:Fulfilment by countries/businesses/individuals of emission reduction and reporting commitments under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.
Compound eye:In Entomological Terms - composed of many elements or ommatidia.
ConFor:Confederation of Forest Industries: an organisation established to help build the market for timber, timber products and forest services, and create a supportive policy environment for the forest industries.
Conservation:The maintenance and protection of biodiversity.
Control:An instrument or set of instruments used to operate, regulate, or guide a Project.
Coppice:Management based on regeneration by regrowth from cut stumps (coppice stools). The same stool is used through several cycles of cutting and regrowth. Coppice is just one example of a LISS.
CORDEX:Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment.
Corticolous:Growing or living on tree bark.
Critical load:The quantitative estimate of the level of exposure of natural systems to pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment does not occur.
Cross border:The overall objective of the Ireland Wales Operational Programme is cross border territorial development (2007-2013). The Programme focus is to further develop the cross border region, thus strengthening the competitiveness and sustainability of the cooperation area.
Cross-cutting research:Research that addresses issues of relevance to two or more Assembly Government policy departments. (Welsh Government Glossary).
Cross cutting themes:The Operational Programme contains information on the steps taken to demonstrate that the objectives of the Funds are pursued in the framework of sustainable development and also to prevent any discrimination on the basis of gender, race or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation during the various stages of implementing the Funds and, in particular, access to them. The cross cutting themes of equal opportunities and sustainable development have been integrated into all the Structural Fund programmes in both Ireland and Wales.
CRoW:Countryside Rights of Way
Crypsis:A form of camouflage or concealment in which animals simply blend in with their surroundings.
C4I:Community Climate Change Consortium for Ireland.

Using nature's weapons to battle current and future threats

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