Keeping woodlands in Wales and Ireland healthy

Glossary E


ECDYSIS:The process of moulting, during which a young insect sheds its outer coat and replaces it with a new one.
EC-EARTH:The EC-Earth consortium gathers 19 research institutions from 10 European countries to collaborate in the development of a new Earth System Model. The goal of EC-Earth is to build a fully coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Land-Biosphere model, usable from seasonal to decadal climate prediction and climate projections. The proposed Earth System Model builds upon the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting’s (ECMWF) world leading modelling technology, and aims to implement the emerging concept of Seamless Prediction.
ECHAM5:An Atmospheric general circulation model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology.
e-INIS:The Irish National e-Infrastructure.
ECMWF:European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts.
Eclosion:The emergence of an insect from a pupa or egg.
Ecological Footprint:The area of land and water which is required to support a defined economy or human population at a specified standard of living indefinitely, using prevailing technology.
ECOSSE:Estimating Carbon in Organic Soils - Sequestration and Emissions: A project undertaken to assess the amount of carbon contained in organic soils in Scotland and Wales. The data derived form the project has been used to develop a model for organic soils ECOSSE. The project was funded by the Scottish Executive and the National Assembly for Wales.
Ecosystem:The interaction of communities of plants and animals (including humans) with each other and with the non-living environment. Balanced ecosystems are stable when considered over the long term – hundreds of years in the case of woodlands.
Ecosystems approach:A way of thinking about the landscape of a whole ecosystem, along with the communities and built environment they create. The approach provides a way of valuing the benefits people gain from ecosystem services.
Ecosystem resilienceThe capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly.
Ecosystem services:Collective term for the multitude of resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems, which benefit humankind. Are distinguished from other ecosystem products and functions because there is a human demand for them, and many studies have attempted to quantify their economic value It includes provisioning services (food, water and timber); cultural services (recreational, health, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits); regulating services (protection of water and soil resources; provision of shelter, shade and cooling, locking up atmospheric carbon); and supporting services (soil formation and photosynthesis).
Ecotype:The biodiversity and conservation newsletter produced by Forest Research’s Centre for Ecosystems, Society and Biosecurity.
Edaphic:Related to or caused by particular soil conditions, as of texture or drainage, rather than by physiographic or climatic factors.
EHS:Environment and Heritage Service: the Northern Ireland Government Agency protecting and conserving the natural and built environment.
Eligible Costs:Costs that are compliant with EU and national rules and are thus eligible to receive grant assistance from the EU.
Empowerment:The process of communities equipping themselves with the power, knowledge, skills or resources they need in order to change and improve the quality of their own lives and their community. Empowerment may come from within or it may be facilitated and supported through external agencies.
Endemic:An organism is said to be endemic if it is only found in one specific location in the world.
Endoparasite:A parasite that lives inside its host.
Endopterygote:Any insect having a complete metamorphosis, with its wings developing inside the body and not visible until the pupal or chrysalis stage.
EntRec / EntRecord:Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation - Is the Amateur Entomologists' Society's high-quality, peer reviewed journal.
Entomology:The scientific study of insects.
Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF):A fungus that can act as a parasite of insects, tick and mites and kills or seriously disables them.
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN):Nematode worms that can act as a parasite of insects and kills or seriously disables them by attaching to the external body surface of insects in the form of microscopic spores. Under permissive conditions of temperature and (usually high) moisture, these spores germinate, grow as hyphae and colonize the insect and eventually they bore through it and reach the insects' body cavity.
Environmentally Friendly:Refers to goods, services and / or practices considered to inflict little harm on the environment.
Environmentally sustainable technologies:Technologies that are less polluting, use resources in a more sustainable manner, recycle more of their waste and products, and handle residual wastes in a more acceptable manner than the technologies that they substitute. They are also more compatible with nationally determined socio-economic, cultural and environmental priorities.
Enzymes:Are large biological molecules responsible for the thousands of metabolic processes that sustain life. They are highly selective catalysts, greatly accelerating both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions.
EPA:Environmental Protection Agency.
EPF:Entomopathogenic fungi – fungi that can act as a parasite of insects and kills or seriously disables them.
epi-:In Entomological Terms - prefix, above.
EPN:Entomopathogenic nematodes – commonly called roundworms which live inside the body of their host and are then designated endoparasitic.
EPPO:European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization - an intergovernmental organization responsible for European cooperation in plant protection in the European and Mediterranean region.
ERA-40:ECMWF re-analysis global atmospheric data (1948 – 2000).
ERA-int:ECMWF re-analysis global atmospheric data (1979 – 2011).
ERDF:European Regional Development Fund - an EU fund to help reduce imbalances between regions of the Community. The Fund was set up in 1975 and grants financial assistance for development projects in the poorer regions. In terms of financial resources, the ERDF is by far the largest of the EU's Structural Funds." The main aim of the ERDF is to overcome the structural deficiencies of the poorer regions in order to overcome the gap between these regions and the richer ones.
Ergonomic (biological):The study in the relationship between insects and their environment.
Eruciform (larva):Caterpillar-like.
ESC – DSS:Ecological Site Classification Decision Support System – a PC based system to help guide forest managers + planners to select ecologically suited species to sites, instead of selecting a species and trying to modify the site to suit.
ESG:Earth System Grid.
Evaluation:Analysis of a project, programme, or policy to assess how successful or otherwise it has been, and what lessons can be learnt for the future. Typically, evaluations are interested in addressing "what works for whom in what context". (Welsh Government Glossary).
Ex-ante evaluation:Evaluation before a programme or project begins.
Exarate Pupa:A pupa in which all the legs and other appendages are free and not enclosed with the rest of the body. Most beetle pupae are of this kind.
Exit Strategy:The plan for what happens to a project or a programme after the current funding comes to an end. Exit strategies are concerned with all aspects of the long-term survival of the project or scheme and may include a fundraising strategy or business plan.
Expectations:What can realistically be achieved or delivered by a project.
Ex-post evaluation:Evaluation of a programme or project when it has reached the end of its life.
Exuvium:The cast-off outer skin of an insect or other arthropod after ecdysis or moulting.
Using nature's weapons to battle current and future threats

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