Keeping woodlands in Wales and Ireland healthy

Glossary P


Paralectotype:In Entomological Terms - any of the original syntypes remaining after the selection of a lectotype.
Parasitism:A relationship between two organisms where one organism gets benefit from the other organism (host) but has a detrimental effect on it. Parasites do not kill their host directly.
Paratype:In Entomological Terms – every specimen in a type series other than the Holotype which were before the author at the time of preparation of the original description and were so designated and indicated there.
Parthenogenesis:The reproduction of an individual whereby offspring are produced without fertilisation by a male.
Pathogens:Microorganism agents such as insect parasitic nematodes, fungi and viruses which are parasites that live off the host and the disease they cause are an indirect result of their obtaining food from, or shelter in the host.
PAWS:Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites: former Ancient Semi-natural Woodlands (ASNW) that has been more or less completely replanted with native or non-native species, degrading the ecological value of the site. The degree of loss of biodiversity varies markedly with species planted and subsequent management.
PDF:Probability Density Function.
PEFC:Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification: an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation which promotes sustainably-managed forests through independent, third party certification.
Pests and Diseases:In a forestry context the term is used to refer to invertebrate pests (e.g. insects) that are harmful to trees, and to diseases of trees caused by pathogens such as certain bacteria and fungi.
Phenetic classification:In Entomological Terms – classification based on degree of overall similarity.
Phenotype:In Entomological Terms – the total characteristics of an individual (its appearance) resulting from interaction between its genotype and its environment.
Pheromone:A chemical substance that is released by one organism to influence the biology or behaviour of another.
Phyllophagous:Feeding upon leaf tissue.
Phylum:One of the seven taxonomic ranks used to classify living organisms and is positioned after Kingdom and before Class.
Phytophthora ramorum / P. ramorum:A fungus-like pathogen of plants which kills larch trees (and some other plants) and is currently spreading rapidly through Wales.
Pinning stage:A metal or wooden block used to position specimens and labels on pins.
Plant! Welsh Government initiative to plant a tree for every new baby and adopted child in Wales from 1 January 2008, helping to create a Welsh National Forest of native trees.
Planted woodland:Planted stands usually have a simpler structure and composition (age and species) than semi natural stands. Some examples, with sympathetic management, may with time develop semi natural characteristics as associated species colonise and the structure becomes more complex.
Plesiotype:A specimen that acts as the name bearer for a species.
Policy evaluation:Uses a range of research methods to systematically investigate the effectiveness of policy interventions, implementation and processes, and to determine their value in terms of improving the social and economic conditions of different stakeholders. This may be ex-ante or ex-post evaluation or both but is not a Policy Review.
Policy review:A wide-ranging investigation that looks at whether a policy remains valid (i.e. relevant, necessary, current, and not conflicting with more recent policies).
Pooter:A device used to pick up small invertebrates without harming them.
Post-border Biosecurity:Efforts to address the economic and environmental threat to forestry pests after they have established in UK and Ireland.
PRA:Pest risk analysis.
PRACE:Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe - a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure, located in Sweden, providing access to computing and data management resources and services for large-scale scientific and engineering applications at the highest performance level.
Pre-border Biosecurity:Concerted efforts to address the economic and environmental threats of forestry pests that have as yet not arrived in UK and Ireland.
Precedence:In Entomological Terms – the order of seniority of available names or nomenclatural acts determined by the application of the Principle of Priority.
Principle of binomial nomenclature:In Entomological Terms – the principle that the scientific name of a species, and not of a taxon at any other rank, is a combination of two names (a Binomen).
Principle of homonymy:In Entomological Terms – the principle that the name of each taxon must be unique.
Principle of Priority:In Entomological Terms – the principle that the valid name of a taxon is the oldest name applied to it.
Principle of typification:In Entomological Terms – the principle that each nominal taxon in the family group, genus group, or species group has, actually or potentially, a name bearing type fixed to provide the objective standard of reference by which the application of the name is determined.
Priority 'at risk' Catchments:River catchments where there is a high risk of pollution.
Priority open habitats:Habitats identified as threatened and subject to a UK BAP. These include upland heathland, blanket bog, lowland dry acid grassland, lowland meadows and lowland calcareous grassland.
Priority species and priority woodland species:Species identified as threatened, and subject to a UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Priority woodland species in Wales include the spotted flycatcher, wood warbler, black grouse, bullfinch, red squirrel, dormouse and several species of bat.
Priority woodland habitats and priority native woodland habitats:Woodland habitats identified as threatened, and subject to a UK Biodiversity Action Plan. The priority woodland habitats in Wales are upland oak woodland; upland mixed ash woodland; wet woodland; lowland beech and yew woodland; and lowland mixed broadleaf woodland.
Production forecast:Forecast of timber availability in the public and private sectors.
Programme:A portfolio of projects and other activities that are planned initiated and managed in a co-ordinated way to achieve set objectives.
Project:An activity with a beginning and an end, carried out to achieve a particular purpose within set cost limits.
Protected sites:Sites with recognised biodiversity or geodiversity significance where legal protection protects them from damaging activities.
PSPFG:Private Sector Production Forecasting Group (FCGB): of representatives and woodland managers develops forecasts of timber availability for the private woodland sector.
Pupa:The third major stage in the life cycle of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis. It is during the pupal stage, which does not feed or usually move about that the larval body is broken down and rebuilt into the adult form.
Pupate:To turn into a pupa.
PWN:Pine wood nematodes.

Using nature's weapons to battle current and future threats

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