Keeping woodlands in Wales and Ireland healthy

Glossary S


s.l(lat. sensu lato) in the wider sense
s.str(lat. sensu stricto) in the stricter sense
SaproxylicPertaining or related to dead or decaying wood.
Scientific nameIn Entomological Terms – Formal nomenclatural designation of a taxon.
Scoping studyMay be conducted at the start of the policy making process in order to identify key issues at an early stage.
SEA - Strategic Environmental AssessmentThe SEA Directive was transposed into law in Ireland in July 2004 and its objective is to provide for a high level of protection of the environment and to contribute to the integration of environmental considerations into the preparation and adoption of specified plans and programmes with a view to promoting sustainable development.
Section 42 listDefined by the Welsh Government under Section 42 of the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006, this is the definitive list of habitats and species of principal importance for biodiversity in Wales.
Semi-natural woodlandWoodlands with current stands predominantly composed of trees and shrubs native to the site and not obviously planted (there are no truly ‘natural’ woods remaining in the UK), which appear to have arisen mainly from natural regeneration or from coppice/pollard growth from naturally-regenerated individuals.
SEPAScottish Environment Protection Agency: Scotland’s environmental regulator, a non-departmental public body, accountable through Scottish Ministers to the Scottish Parliament. Have been advising Scottish Ministers, regulated businesses, industry and the public on environmental best practice for many years.
Service level agreementsAgreement between organisations and/or agencies setting out how services must be provided, what their standards will be and how monitoring will take place.
Shelterwood systemInvolves the felling of a proportion of the mature trees within an area whilst leaving some trees as a seed source and shelter for natural regeneration. The seed trees are subsequently removed and the system is just one example of LISS.
Short rotation ForestryCultivation of fast growing trees for 8-20 years. Often trees are coppiced.
SilvicolousGrowing in or inhabiting woodlands.
SilvicultureThe techniques of tending and regenerating woodlands, and harvesting their physical products.
Single tree selection systemsA method of managing irregular stands in which individual trees of any size are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand (UKWAS 2006).
SinkAny process, activity, or mechanism that removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol, or a precursor of a greenhouse gas or aerosol from the atmosphere.
Site-native speciesThose that are native to the locality and are capable of growing naturally on the site. In general site-native species have high biodiversity value because of a long history of co-adaptation with the local environment. At a national level use of site-native species will conserve regional distinctiveness that is a key part of biodiversity. Widely naturalised species such as sycamore and sweet chestnut are not considered truly native anywhere in the UK, whilst some species such as beech, hornbeam and Scots pine are considered to be native only in parts of Britain. Precise delimitation of natural range appears increasingly unrealistic given the fundamental changes in climate that are already occurring.
Small coupe fellingA small scale clear-felling system. The system is imprecisely defined but coupes are typically between 0.5 ha and 2.0 ha in extent, with the larger coupes elongated in shape so the edge effect is still high (UKWAS 2006). Small Coupe Felling is just one example of a LISS.
SMART goalsSpecific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely.
SMESmall to medium sized enterprise with not more than 250 employees.
Social economyRefers to the activity in financial as well as human terms, of the voluntary, charity, campaign and social sector in the UK. The value placed on this is sometimes referred to as social capital.
SONSeptember, October, November (Autumn).
sp.nov; sp. n; species novaIn Entomological Terms - new species.
SpeciesIs one of the seven taxonomic ranks used to classify living organisms, and is a group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Species groupIn Entomological Terms – the taxonomic categories species and subspecies
SRESSpecial Report on Emissions Scenarios.
SRFShort Rotation Forestry: the cultivation of fast-growing trees for 8 – 20 years. The trees are often coppiced.
SSSISite of Special Scientific Interest: a conservation designation denoting an area in Britain protected for its wildlife or geology.
SSTSea Surface Temperature.
StakeholdersPeople who have an interest in an organisation, its activities and its achievements, including customers, partners, employees, shareholders, owners, government and regulators. Modern consultation is usually 'stakeholder focused'.
State aid State aid means action by a (national, regional or local) public authority, using public resources, to favour certain undertakings or the production of certain goods.
Status novus; stat.nov.In Entomological Terms – New status, representing a change in status.
Strategic Regeneration AreasAreas designated by the Welsh Assembly Government, where there is a focus on integrated, cross-cutting initiatives aimed at economic development and regeneration.
StrategyAn overall plan of how to implement policy.
Strip Felling SystemsNarrow strip felling to provide sheltered regeneration sites and control of the microclimate through use of overhead and side shade. Strip width undefined but size related to height of mature crop. (Matthews, 1989 & Hart, 1995).
Structural fundsMoney from Brussels aimed at regenerating the most deprived parts of the European Union. The funds can be used for a wide range of projects, including new businesses, infrastructure, training and job creation. Government have to match the EU’s investment to take full advantage of the money.
StructureFor an EU Funded project this is detailed in the Partnership Agreement which all partners need to sign.
SubalpineClimate zone 1500 - 2500 m on the higher slopes of a mountain where the following tree species grow - Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway Spruce (Picea abies), Swiss Pine (Pinus cembra, Arve or Zirbel) limit and European Larch (Larix decidua) limit.
sub.genIn Entomological Terms – Subgenus
SubmontaneClimate zone 450 - 800 m situated on or characteristic of the lower slopes of a mountain where the following tree species grow - European Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Silver Fir or European Silver Fir (Abies alba) and Norway Spruce (Picea abies).
subspIn Entomological Terms – Subspecies
Subspecific nameIn Entomological Terms – the 3rd (third) name in a trinomen.
SubsidiarityThe principle that matters should be dealt with at the most appropriate level of government or society.
SubstitutionThe use of materials, such as woodland products, as a replacement for (in this instance) materials that are derived from fossil fuels or produced using fossil fuels.
supr.cit; supra citatoIn Entomological Terms – Cited above.
Supply ChainA system of organisations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
Sustainable communitiesPlaces where people want to live and work, now and in the future. They meet the needs of existing and future residents, are sensitive to their environment, and contribute to a high quality of life. They are safe and inclusive, well planned, built and run, and offer equality of opportunity and good services for all.
Sustainable developmentDevelopment that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable forest management'The stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfil, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems,' (Second Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, Helsinki; 1993).
Sustainable managementThe collective actions, (including non-action) required for managing the maintenance, enhancement and use of natural resources in a way, or at a rate, which will enable the people and communities of Wales to provide for their social, economic and environmental well-being, while maintaining the life-support systems of nature. In doing so, ensuring that the benefit of the use to the present generation does not diminish the potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations.’ (Environment Bill White Paper definition)
SustainabilityIn a general sense, the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely. The concept of sustainability applies to all aspects of life on Earth and is commonly defined within ecological, social and economic contexts.
Sweep netA type of net used to collect insects from long grass.
SWOT AnalysisA technique to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a project or policy proposal. It involves specifying the objective of policy / project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favourable and unfavourable to achieving that objective.
SymposiumA conference or meeting to discuss a particular subject.
SynergismThe interaction of biological structures or substances that produce an overall effect greater than the sum of individual effect of any of them.
SynonymIn Entomological Terms – each of 2 or more different names applied to the same taxon.
SynonymyIn Entomological Terms – the relationship between different names applied to the same taxon. A chronological list of taxonomic names which have been applied to a single taxon, including authors and dates. When this includes full bibliographic references for the name = Full Bibliographic Synonymy.
SyntypeIn Entomological Terms – each specimen of a type series from which neither a Holotype nor a Lectotype has been designated. The syntypes collectively constitute the name-bearing type.
SystematicsIn Entomological Terms – studies of the kind and diversity of organisms and of any and all the relationships among them i.e. the science of the diversity of organisms.
Using nature's weapons to battle current and future threats

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